What Makes Brain Fog So Unforgiving

On March 25, 2020, Hannah Davis was texting with two buddies when she realized that she couldn’t perceive certainly one of their messages. In hindsight, that was the primary signal that she had COVID-19. It was additionally her first expertise with the phenomenon referred to as “mind fog,” and the second when her outdated life contracted into her present one. She as soon as labored in synthetic intelligence and analyzed advanced techniques with out hesitation, however now “runs right into a psychological wall” when confronted with duties so simple as filling out kinds. Her reminiscence, as soon as vivid, feels frayed and fleeting. Former mundanities—shopping for meals, making meals, cleansing up—will be agonizingly tough. Her interior world—what she calls “the extras of pondering, like daydreaming, planning, imagining”—is gone. The fog “is so encompassing,” she informed me, “it impacts each space of my life.” For greater than 900 days, whereas different long-COVID signs have waxed and waned, her mind fog has by no means actually lifted.

Of lengthy COVID’s many doable signs, mind fog “is by far one of the crucial disabling and harmful,” Emma Ladds, a primary-care specialist from the College of Oxford, informed me. It’s additionally among the many most misunderstood. It wasn’t even included within the listing of doable COVID signs when the coronavirus pandemic first started. However 20 to 30 % of sufferers report mind fog three months after their preliminary an infection, as do 65 to 85 % of the long-haulers who keep sick for for much longer. It could afflict individuals who have been by no means sick sufficient to want a ventilator—or any hospital care. And it could possibly have an effect on younger folks within the prime of their psychological lives.

Lengthy-haulers with mind fog say that it’s like not one of the issues that folks—together with many medical professionals—jeeringly evaluate it to. It’s extra profound than the clouded pondering that accompanies hangovers, stress, or fatigue. It isn’t ADHD, which Davis was as soon as recognized with. It isn’t psychosomatic, and includes actual modifications to the construction and chemistry of the mind. It isn’t a temper dysfunction: “If anybody is saying that this is because of despair and anxiousness, they don’t have any foundation for that, and knowledge counsel it may be the opposite course,” Joanna Hellmuth, a neurologist at UC San Francisco, informed me.

And regardless of its nebulous identify, mind fog isn’t an umbrella time period for each doable psychological drawback. At its core, Hellmuth stated, it’s virtually all the time a dysfunction of “govt perform”—the set of psychological talents that features focusing consideration, holding info in thoughts, and blocking out distractions. These expertise are so foundational that after they crumble, a lot of an individual’s cognitive edifice collapses. Something involving focus, multitasking, and planning—that’s, virtually all the pieces essential—turns into absurdly arduous. “It raises what are unconscious processes for wholesome folks to the extent of acutely aware choice making,” Fiona Robertson, a author primarily based in Aberdeen, Scotland, informed me.

For instance, Robertson’s mind usually loses focus mid-sentence, resulting in what she jokingly calls “so-yeah syndrome”: “I neglect what I’m saying, tail off, and go, ‘So, yeah …’” she stated. Mind fog stopped Kristen Tjaden from driving, as a result of she’d neglect her vacation spot en route. For greater than a yr, she couldn’t learn, both, as a result of making sense of a sequence of phrases had develop into too tough. Angela Meriquez Vázquez informed me it as soon as took her two hours to schedule a gathering over e-mail: She’d examine her calendar, however the info would slip within the second it took to carry up her inbox. At her worst, she couldn’t unload a dishwasher, as a result of figuring out an object, remembering the place it ought to go, and placing it there was too sophisticated.

Reminiscence suffers, too, however otherwise from degenerative circumstances like Alzheimer’s. The recollections are there, however with govt perform malfunctioning, the mind neither chooses the essential issues to retailer nor retrieves that info effectively. Davis, who’s a part of the Affected person-Led Analysis Collaborative, can keep in mind information from scientific papers, however not occasions. When she thinks of her family members, or her outdated life, they really feel distant. “Moments that affected me don’t really feel like they’re a part of me anymore,” she stated. “It looks like I’m a void and I’m dwelling in a void.”

Most individuals with mind fog are usually not so severely affected, and steadily enhance with time. However even when folks get well sufficient to work, they’ll wrestle with minds which are much less nimble than earlier than. “We’re used to driving a sports activities automobile, and now we’re left with a jalopy,” Vázquez stated. In some professions, a jalopy gained’t minimize it. “I’ve had surgeons who can’t return to surgical procedure, as a result of they want their govt perform,” Monica Verduzco-Gutierrez, a rehabilitation specialist at UT Well being San Antonio, informed me.

Robertson, in the meantime, was finding out theoretical physics in faculty when she first bought sick, and her fog occluded a profession path that was as soon as brightly lit. “I used to glitter, like I may pull these items collectively and begin to see how the universe works,” she informed me. “I’ve by no means been in a position to entry that sensation once more, and I miss it, each day, like an ache.” That lack of id was as disruptive because the bodily elements of the illness, which “I all the time thought I may take care of … if I may simply suppose correctly,” Robertson stated. “That is the factor that’s destabilized me most.”


Robertson predicted that the pandemic would set off a wave of cognitive impairment in March 2020. Her mind fog started twenty years earlier, doubtless with a unique viral sickness, however she developed the identical executive-function impairments that long-haulers expertise, which then worsened when she bought COVID final yr. That particular constellation of issues additionally befalls many individuals dwelling with HIV, epileptics after seizures, most cancers sufferers experiencing so-called chemo mind, and other people with a number of advanced persistent diseases corresponding to fibromyalgia. It’s a part of the diagnostic standards for myalgic encephalomyelitis, often known as persistent fatigue syndrome, or ME/CFS—a situation that Davis and lots of different long-haulers now have. Mind fog existed nicely earlier than COVID, affecting many individuals whose circumstances have been stigmatized, dismissed, or uncared for. “For all of these years, folks simply handled it prefer it’s not price researching,” Robertson informed me. “So many people have been informed, Oh, it’s only a little bit of a despair.

A number of clinicians I spoke with argued that the time period mind fog makes the situation sound like a brief inconvenience and deprives sufferers of the legitimacy that extra medicalized language like cognitive impairment would bestow. However Aparna Nair, a historian of incapacity on the College of Oklahoma, famous that incapacity communities have used the time period for many years, and there are numerous different causes behind mind fog’s dismissal past terminology. (A surfeit of syllables didn’t cease fibromyalgia and myalgic encephalomyelitis from being trivialized.)

For instance, Hellmuth famous that in her discipline of cognitive neurology, “nearly all of the infrastructure and instructing” facilities on degenerative illnesses like Alzheimer’s, by which rogue proteins afflict aged brains. Few researchers know that viruses could cause cognitive issues in youthful folks, so few examine their results. “Because of this, nobody learns about it in medical faculty,” Hellmuth stated. And since “there’s not numerous humility in drugs, folks find yourself blaming sufferers as an alternative of in search of solutions,” she stated.

Folks with mind fog additionally excel at hiding it: Not one of the long-haulers I’ve interviewed sounded cognitively impaired. However at occasions when her speech is clearly sluggish, “no person besides my husband and mom see me,” Robertson stated. The stigma that long-haulers expertise additionally motivates them to current as regular in social conditions or physician appointments, which compounds the mistaken sense that they’re much less impaired than they declare—and will be debilitatingly draining. “They’ll do what’s requested of them whenever you’re testing them, and your outcomes will say they have been regular,” David Putrino, who leads a long-COVID rehabilitation clinic at Mount Sinai, informed me. “It’s provided that you examine in on them two days later that you simply’ll see you’ve wrecked them for per week.”

“We additionally don’t have the precise instruments for measuring mind fog,” Putrino stated. Medical doctors usually use the Montreal Cognitive Evaluation, which was designed to uncover excessive psychological issues in aged folks with dementia, and “isn’t validated for anybody underneath age 55,” Hellmuth informed me. Even an individual with extreme mind fog can ace it. Extra refined checks exist, however they nonetheless evaluate folks with the inhabitants common relatively than their earlier baseline. “A high-functioning individual with a decline of their talents who falls inside the regular vary is informed they don’t have an issue,” Hellmuth stated.

This sample exists for a lot of long-COVID signs: Medical doctors order inappropriate or overly simplistic checks, whose damaging outcomes are used to discredit sufferers’ real signs. It doesn’t assist that mind fog (and lengthy COVID extra typically) disproportionately impacts girls, who’ve an extended historical past of being labeled as emotional or hysterical by the medical institution. However each affected person with mind fog “tells me the very same story of executive-function signs,” Hellmuth stated. “If folks have been making this up, the scientific narrative wouldn’t be the identical.”


Earlier this yr, a workforce of British researchers rendered the invisible nature of mind fog within the stark black-and-white imagery of MRI scans. Gwenaëlle Douaud on the College of Oxford and her colleagues analyzed knowledge from the UK Biobank examine, which had commonly scanned the brains of a whole bunch of volunteers for years previous to the pandemic. When a few of these volunteers caught COVID, the workforce may evaluate their after scans to the earlier than ones. They discovered that even delicate infections can barely shrink the mind and cut back the thickness of its neuron-rich grey matter. At their worst, these modifications have been similar to a decade of getting old. They have been particularly pronounced in areas such because the parahippocampal gyrus, which is essential for encoding and retrieving recollections, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which is essential for govt perform. They have been nonetheless obvious in individuals who hadn’t been hospitalized. They usually have been accompanied by cognitive issues.

Though SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID, can enter and infect the central nervous system, it doesn’t achieve this effectively, persistently, or often, Michelle Monje, a neuro-oncologist at Stanford, informed me. As an alternative, she thinks that usually the virus harms the mind with out immediately infecting it. She and her colleagues not too long ago confirmed that when mice expertise delicate bouts of COVID, inflammatory chemical substances can journey from the lungs to the mind, the place they disrupt cells referred to as microglia. Usually, microglia act as groundskeepers, supporting neurons by pruning pointless connections and cleansing undesirable particles. When infected, their efforts develop into overenthusiastic and harmful. Of their presence, the hippocampus—a area essential for reminiscence—produces fewer recent neurons, whereas many current neurons lose their insulating coats, so electrical alerts now course alongside these cells extra slowly. These are the identical modifications that Monje sees in most cancers sufferers with “chemo fog.” And though she and her workforce did their COVID experiments in mice, they discovered excessive ranges of the identical inflammatory chemical substances in long-haulers with mind fog.

Monje suspects that neuro-inflammation is “most likely the commonest manner” that COVID outcomes intriggers mind fog, however that there are doubtless many such routes. COVID may presumably set off autoimmune issues by which the immune system mistakenly assaults the nervous system, or reactivate dormant viruses corresponding to Epstein-Barr virus, which has been linked to circumstances together with ME/CFS and a number of sclerosis. By damaging blood vessels and filling them with small clots, COVID additionally throttles the mind’s blood provide, depriving this most energetically demanding of organs of oxygen and gasoline. This oxygen shortfall isn’t stark sufficient to kill neurons or ship folks to an ICU, however “the mind isn’t getting what it wants to fireside on all cylinders,” Putrino informed me. (The extreme oxygen deprivation that forces some folks with COVID into important care causes totally different cognitive issues than what most long-haulers expertise.)

None of those explanations is ready in stone, however they’ll collectively make sense of mind fog’s options. A scarcity of oxygen would have an effect on refined and energy-dependent cognitive duties first, which explains why govt perform and language “are the primary ones to go,” Putrino stated. With out insulating coats, neurons work extra slowly, which explains why many long-haulers really feel that their processing velocity is shot: “You’re dropping the factor that facilitates quick neural connection between mind areas,” Monje stated. These issues will be exacerbated or mitigated by components corresponding to sleep and relaxation, which explains why many individuals with mind fog have good days and dangerous days. And though different respiratory viruses can wreak inflammatory havoc on the mind, SARS-CoV-2 does so extra potently than, say, influenza, which explains each why folks corresponding to Robertson developed mind fog lengthy earlier than the present pandemic and why the symptom is very outstanding amongst COVID long-haulers.

Maybe crucial implication of this rising science is that mind fog is “doubtlessly reversible,” Monje stated. If the symptom was the work of a persistent mind an infection, or the mass dying of neurons following extreme oxygen hunger, it could be onerous to undo. However neuroinflammation isn’t future. Most cancers researchers, for instance, have developed medication that may calm berserk microglia in mice and restore their cognitive talents; some are being examined in early scientific trials. “I’m hopeful that we’ll discover the identical to be true in COVID,” she stated.


Biomedical advances may take years to reach, however long-haulers need assistance with mind fog now. Absent cures, most approaches to therapy are about serving to folks handle their signs. Sounder sleep, wholesome consuming, and different generic life-style modifications could make the situation extra tolerable. Respiration and leisure methods may also help folks via dangerous flare-ups; speech remedy may also help these with issues discovering phrases. Some over-the-counter drugs corresponding to antihistamines can ease inflammatory signs, whereas stimulants can increase lagging focus.

“Some folks spontaneously get well again to baseline,” Hellmuth informed me, “however two and a half years on, numerous sufferers I see are not any higher.” And between these extremes lies maybe the most important group of long-haulers—these whose mind fog has improved however not vanished, and who can “preserve a comparatively regular life, however solely after making critical lodging,” Putrino stated. Lengthy restoration durations and a slew of lifehacks make common dwelling doable, however extra slowly and at increased value.

Kristen Tjaden can learn once more, albeit for brief bursts adopted by lengthy rests, however hasn’t returned to work. Angela Meriquez Vázquez can work however can’t multitask or course of conferences in actual time. Julia Moore Vogel, who helps lead a big biomedical analysis program, can muster sufficient govt perform for her job, however “virtually all the pieces else in my life I’ve minimize out to make room for that,” she informed me. “I solely depart the home or socialize as soon as per week.” And he or she not often talks about these issues overtly as a result of “in my discipline, your mind is your foreign money,” she stated. “I do know my worth in many individuals’s eyes will probably be diminished by realizing that I’ve these cognitive challenges.”

Sufferers wrestle to make peace with how a lot they’ve modified and the stigma related to it, no matter the place they find yourself. Their desperation to return to regular will be harmful, particularly when mixed with cultural norms round urgent on via challenges and post-exertional malaise—extreme crashes by which all signs worsen after even minor bodily or psychological exertion. Many long-haulers attempt to push themselves again to work and as an alternative “push themselves right into a crash,” Robertson informed me. When she tried to pressure her solution to normalcy, she turned largely housebound for a yr, needing full-time care. Even now, if she tries to pay attention in the course of a foul day, “I find yourself with a bodily response of exhaustion and ache, like I’ve run a marathon,” she stated.

Publish-exertional malaise is so frequent amongst long-haulers that “train as a therapy is inappropriate for folks with lengthy COVID,” Putrino stated. Even brain-training video games—which have questionable worth however are sometimes talked about as potential therapies for mind fog—have to be very fastidiously rationed as a result of psychological exertion is bodily exertion. Folks with ME/CFS realized this lesson the onerous manner, and fought onerous to get train remedy, as soon as generally prescribed for the situation, to be faraway from official steerage within the U.S. and U.Okay. They’ve additionally realized the worth of pacing—fastidiously sensing and managing their vitality ranges to keep away from crashes.

Vogel does this with a wearable that tracks her coronary heart fee, sleep, exercise, and stress as a proxy for her vitality ranges; in the event that they really feel low, she forces herself to relaxation—cognitively in addition to bodily. Checking social media or responding to emails don’t depend. In these moments, “it’s a must to settle for that you’ve got this medical disaster and the very best factor you are able to do is actually nothing,” she stated. When caught in a fog, generally the one choice is to face nonetheless.

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