Could Paxlovid Treat Long COVID?

Up to date at 2:55 p.m. on Could 10, 2022

Within the two years since she caught the coronavirus, 38-year-old Jessica McGovern has cycled by “nicely over 100 medicine, dietary supplements, and therapies” to attempt to preserve her long-COVID signs at bay. In virtually all instances, she instructed me, the interventions have been to no avail: Exhaustion, weak point, and aches nonetheless lashed her to the sofa; she nonetheless felt suffocating chest ache that worsened when she inhaled; her higher physique was nonetheless haunted by a pointy, staticky sensation that reminded her of working sizzling water over frozen arms. McGovern would go to sleep in agony, then dream of extra agony.

Then, across the begin of April, she started a five-day course of Paxlovid, Pfizer’s antiviral tablet. By her second day on the drug, McGovern “may really feel the messaging in my physique shifting.” 4 weeks later, her fatigue, aches, and labored respiratory stay. However the screaming, nerves-on-fire ache that gripped her physique for 2 dozen months “is mainly gone,” she instructed me. She’s recovered some mobility. She’s spending extra time together with her three younger youngsters. A flutist for almost three a long time, she’s enjoying her instrument once more after a two-year hiatus, “which feels unbelievable,” like reclaiming a shade of her former self.

To this point, no established remedies exist for lengthy COVID. However in latest weeks, a smattering of long-haulers—McGovern amongst them—have been stunned to really feel their sicknesses subside after taking Pfizer’s new drug. The case for treating lengthy COVID with antivirals is way from open-and-shut. However ought to these anecdotal experiences augur a flood of comparable information, Paxlovid would possibly supply a surprisingly easy repair to one of many pandemic’s greatest puzzles. Lengthy COVID is so ranging, so numerous, so able to wreaking havoc on a large number of tissues that remedy, for a lot of, will undoubtedly require the rehabilitation of many bodily techniques without delay. Possibly, although, for a subset of long-haulers, a couple of days of antiviral tablets might be all it takes to rev the therapeutic course of into gear.

That Paxlovid might quench anybody’s long-COVID signs is itself a bit mysterious: The drug works finest when delivered quick and early, futzing with the virus’s means to xerox itself inside human cells and making it simpler for the immune system to jettison the bug. However lengthy COVID can take weeks or months to manifest, and hasn’t been confirmed to have a persistent viral supply. Consultants nonetheless don’t know the way widespread, or lasting, post-pill reprieves is perhaps; they’ll’t say with confidence why the drug may have palliative results, or—if stated results are substantiated—which long-haulers stand to profit most.

Even within the rosiest situation, Paxlovid received’t be a panacea. But when it has an opportunity of doing one thing, even for only a fraction of long-haulers, “we now have to not less than strive,” says Jeanne Marrazzo, the director of the division of infectious illnesses on the College of Alabama at Birmingham College of Drugs, “as a result of we now have nothing else.” Tens of millions of individuals in america alone are estimated to have developed lengthy COVID’s harrowing signs because the pandemic’s begin; their numbers develop with every extra wave. “That is an intervention that ought to [have been] below scientific trial yesterday,” says David Putrino, a neuroscientist and rehabilitation specialist at Mount Sinai. And but there are, up to now, no well-designed research investigating Paxlovid’s potential as a long-COVID drug, and none publicly poised to start.


The seek for long-COVID therapies has been stymied, partially, by the character of lengthy COVID. The situation, like most cancers, seems to be not a single illness however a class of related-but-distinct syndromes, every of which may manifest with its personal set of signs, require its personal remedies, and stem from a barely completely different trigger. In some proportion of long-haulers, perhaps the bulk, the virus is believed to have come and gone, abandoning physiological devastation—battered tissues, raging irritation, self-attacking antibodies, discombobulated nerves, a freckling of blood clots. In these instances, consultants instructed me, Paxlovid most likely received’t do diddly-squat. However maybe the drug may assist one other group of long-haulers, who’re thought to harbor hard-to-reach reservoirs of virus that repeatedly rile the physique up.

The snarl is that nobody has but offered slam-dunk proof of those hidden viral caches. Many scientists, together with Yale’s Akiko Iwasaki, one of many world’s prime long-COVID researchers, argue that robust hints are there: SARS-CoV-2 actually can stick round in sure individuals’s our bodies for months, and may mosey out of the airway to colonize different tissues, together with ones that sure immune fighters can’t simply entry. Researchers have seen traces of the virus’s genetic materials and proteins in a mélange of organs, typically months after infections start. However whereas these fragments may characterize energetic virus, they may be bits of stray microbial trash. To assist clinch the case, researchers must recruit tons of long-haulers, guess the place the virus is perhaps lurking, and see if they may extract sufficient of the microbe from that tissue to contaminate new cells within the lab—research which might be invasive, “lengthy and sluggish and painful” to get good, and couldn’t even show that the virus was inflicting the signs at hand, says Catherine Blish, an immunologist at Stanford.

Nonetheless, Vineet Menachery, a coronavirus knowledgeable on the College of Texas Medical Department, believes long-term an infection might be “extra widespread than we predict,” he instructed me. Individuals’s lived experiences help that too. Some long-haulers have reported feeling a large, sudden upswing in well-being after receiving COVID vaccines—a development a number of consultants attribute to the photographs galvanizing immune cells into lastly, lastly kicking out remnant virus.

The handful of post-Paxlovid enchancment tales now rising echo what different long-haulers felt with the vaccines. A bunch of Stanford researchers, led by the doctor Linda Geng, just lately reported {that a} 47-year-old lady’s long-COVID signs—amongst them, fatigue, insomnia, physique aches, cognitive points, and a racing heartbeat—evaporated after she took Paxlovid for a potential reinfection. “She was ready to return to work, and began exercising once more,” Geng instructed me. A few long-haulers being handled at a clinic at UCSF could also be on an analogous trajectory. Lavanya Visvabharathy, a 37-year-old immunologist at Northwestern College, skilled a bounceback as nicely. After months of complications, fatigue, and disturbed sleep, she nabbed Paxlovid on the finish of March, and “all my signs went away,” she instructed me. Visvabharathy, who takes immunosuppressive medicine to handle her rheumatoid arthritis, had been repeatedly testing antigen-positive. However after she completed Pfizer’s tablets, she noticed a unfavourable for the primary time since she was contaminated, in December.

Anecdotes and case research alone received’t be sufficient. To date, the experiences of post-Paxlovid enhancements have been too inconsistent, too scant “to gauge what’s actually taking place,” Angela Meriquez Vázquez, who runs Physique Politic, an advocacy group that provides help to individuals with lengthy COVID, instructed me. Many long-haulers don’t qualify to take Paxlovid, as a result of they haven’t just lately examined optimistic and aren’t thought of at “excessive danger” of growing extreme COVID. Lengthy COVID’s signs may naturally wax and wane, making it tough to tie reduction to a definitive trigger. To indicate with any actual readability whether or not Paxlovid’s doing what many long-haulers hope, somebody wants to check the speculation with rigorous scientific trials, ideally with the assistance of the corporate that’s manufacturing the drug.


Pfizer doesn’t appear actively opposed. The corporate is “contemplating how we’d probably research it,” Package Longley, a spokesperson for Pfizer, wrote in an e-mail, however declined to make clear why the corporate has no research below manner. That frustrates Putrino, of Mount Sinai, who thinks Pfizer might want to spearhead many of those efforts; it’s Pfizer’s drug, in any case, and the corporate has the perfect information on it, and the means to maneuver it ahead. The NIH, whose RECOVER initiative has a price range of greater than $1 billion to check lengthy COVID, just lately sought proposals for scientific trials of latest long-COVID therapies, together with, probably, antivirals—a promising step, Stanford’s Geng instructed me. However the company has been sharply criticized for dillydallying within the year-plus because the program launched, and for de-emphasizing treatment-focused trials. And there’s no assure that Paxlovid can be among the many remedies examined. When requested to elaborate on Paxlovid’s experimental standing, the NIH stated solely that the company “may be very considering long run viral exercise as a possible explanation for PASC (lengthy COVID), and antivirals corresponding to Paxlovid are within the class of remedies being thought of for the scientific trials.”

In all equity, a Paxlovid–long-COVID trial can be powerful. Researchers nonetheless haven’t reached a consensus on easy methods to outline or diagnose lengthy COVID, or what it means for sufferers to markedly enhance. Medicine in opposition to extreme illness have an ultra-clear readout: “You depend the quantity of people that find yourself within the hospital,” says Steven Deeks, a long-COVID researcher at UCSF. Lengthy COVID’s sprawling scope, nonetheless, means no single ruler can measure the drug’s potential affect. Lots of the consultants I spoke with felt a bit daunted by the thought of attempting to quantify the illness’s qualitative signs pre- and post-Paxlovid. That problem, they stated, might be a stumbling block for any analysis effort. However JD Davids, the co-founder of the Methods for Excessive Affect and its Nationwide Community for Lengthy COVID Justice, who has lengthy COVID, instructed me scientists don’t need to look far for inspiration. Researchers have already developed metrics for an additional persistent sickness, ME/CFS (which Davids additionally has) to fee, as an example, the severity of fatigue, mobility limitations, and ache. “You simply need to imagine that folks can let you know how they’re feeling,” Davids stated.

Then there’s the query of whom to enroll, and what number of of them. If solely a small fraction of long-haulers are duking it out with persistent virus, “you won’t see the profit” in trials, except they’re gargantuan in dimension, says Daniel Griffin, an infectious-disease doctor at Columbia. Researchers may hedge their bets by selectively recruiting long-haulers who frequently shed bits of virus genetic materials of their feces, say, or who solely just lately developed long-COVID signs and is perhaps extra more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 nonetheless inside them. However choose the incorrect subset, and a trial may tank. Iwasaki, of Yale, desires to explicitly research the drug’s results in a variety of individuals. “The purpose is to not treatment everybody however perceive who advantages,” she instructed me—and when. In some individuals, lengthy COVID may evolve from a viral drawback into an autoimmune one, making early intervention important.

Paxlovid has baggage too. In latest weeks, some individuals taking the five-day tablet course for brand new infections have reported a rebound in signs and take a look at positivity—a probable indication, UTMB’s Menachery instructed me, that the tablets aren’t sweeping all of the SARS-CoV-2 out. It’s nonetheless unclear how widespread the relapses are, and the issue could also be cropping up with lengthy COVID too. Alisa Valdes, a 53-year-old author who has battled greater than 220 long-COVID signs, “felt regular for the primary time in 25 months” after taking Paxlovid in April. “I used to be skipping, I used to be leaping,” she instructed me. “I believed, It is a miracle.” However inside a day of the medicine working out, her physique was as soon as once more aching, feverish, and infected; indignant pink rashes that had disappeared got here roaring proper again.

Visvabharathy, the Northwestern immunologist, instructed me that a couple of weeks after taking Paxlovid, she felt some signs creeping again as nicely. A take a look at she took on the finish of April additionally got here up optimistic. Maybe Paxlovid’s five-day routine for acute COVID will should be lengthened in some newly contaminated sufferers; long-haulers might require one thing extra prolonged nonetheless. Such a tweak may immediate a slew of security questions. The unique scientific trials turned up unwanted effects—occasional bouts of diarrhea, a nasty bitter tang within the mouth—that didn’t increase big issues, however after months of unabating sickness, long-haulers’ our bodies might not react in the identical solution to the medicine, particularly when dosed on an extra-long course. Paxlovid additionally interferes with a hefty checklist of different medicines, a few of which might’t be paused for prolonged durations.

Proper now, long-haulers are playing with all of these query marks as they search the drug out—a few of them by loopholes within the health-care system, with the assistance of suppliers sympathetic to their trigger. With so few choices on the desk, persons are “itching for any sort of remedy,” Physique Politic’s Vázquez instructed me, and a few are keen to abdomen a little bit of danger. However within the absence of actual information and rigorous analysis, and with so many unable to entry the drug in any respect, others are hesitant and confused—and afraid of being as soon as once more let down.


From the beginning of the pandemic, skepticism has dogged lengthy COVID and the individuals who dwell with it. McGovern, the flutist, spent a lot of 2020 being repeatedly instructed that her signs have been simply nervousness, or that she was feeling off as a result of she was allergic to her pet parrots. (She isn’t.) Attitudes have improved within the years since—however some docs, as soon as uncertain of lengthy COVID’s existence, now wrestle to wrap their head across the prospect of out-of-the-box remedies. At one level, I requested McGovern which of the various therapies she’s tried truly helped. “Except for my household and shut associates, you’re the primary individual to ask me that,” she instructed me. “I’ve by no means had a doctor ask me ‘What has labored for you?’”

This skepticism can prolong to analysis too. Benjamin tenOever, a virologist at NYU, instructed me that he just lately had NIH funding pulled from a undertaking that will have investigated whether or not antivirals may fight long-COVID signs in a hamster mannequin. His contact on the company stated the research had “no benefit,” tenOever instructed me. “They have been like, This doesn’t make sense, as a result of why would Paxlovid ever assist lengthy COVID? The virus is lengthy gone.” (After I reached out to NIH, Clint Wright, the director of the Division of Medical Analysis on the Nationwide Institute of Neurological Problems and Stroke, responded that “we will’t touch upon analysis that isn’t funded.”) Others posited that the potential advantage of antivirals for long-haulers won’t really feel definitely worth the effort required to show it: Even when viral persistence performs a job, it might be fairly unusual. Yale’s Iwasaki dismisses this. “Say it’s solely 10 p.c of sufferers that reply positively,” she instructed me. That’s nonetheless probably hundreds of thousands of individuals within the U.S. alone.

America’s neglectful posture on lengthy COVID is choreographed into nearly each side of what’s left of the nation’s pandemic response. Vaccines can’t completely block lengthy COVID, however are being billed, through boosters, as one of many solely interventions individuals want; the CDC’s latest tips on masks virtually fully elide the situation’s existence, because it’s not classically thought of to be clinically “extreme.” Researchers aren’t even positive if early-acting remedies corresponding to antivirals slash individuals’s possibilities of getting lengthy COVID, although Iwasaki is hopeful that they do. With so few protections in opposition to lengthy COVID obtainable or in use, its burden solely stands to develop. Therapies, not less than, may lastly assemble an exit ramp.

Paxlovid may nonetheless be a bust. However the strategy of figuring that out may shift the panorama for lengthy COVID. Rigorously testing this drug in long-haulers may assist researchers construct templates for much more scientific trials, Davids, of the Nationwide Community for Lengthy COVID Justice, instructed me. And maybe different, extra highly effective therapies would observe: antivirals particularly tailor-made for long-haulers’ wants, or immune-modulating medicine to fight the instances of lengthy COVID which might be much less concerning the virus and extra concerning the physique attacking itself. Lengthy COVID’s drawback has at all times been a self-reinforcing one. It’s tough to handle, so it goes unaddressed; international locations have no idea easy methods to cope with it, in order that they don’t, and easily by no means study. Reversing that development, Davids and different long-haulers instructed me, means not simply describing the situation however tackling it; not simply counting the individuals who dwell with it however working to scale back their ranks. The world has to start out that course of now, or danger falling additional behind.

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